Biofloc Fish Culture Project : An Extension Initiative of Department of Zoology, Silapathar Science College
Dr. Pabitra Sarmah. M.Sc., B.Ed., M.Phil., Ph.D.
Principal Investigator, Biofloc Fish Culture Project &
Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology
Silapathar Science College
Biofloc fish culture is the process of culturing fishes with high density inside tanks along with Bacteria which helps in management of waste and feed. During fish farming, Major portion of investment cost is used up in feeding material, Land space and Water. In this fish culturing system, farmers reduce all of the cost to greater extent as some amount fish feed is produced within the ecosystem of Biofloc and it requires less land with little or no water exchange. Therefore, Biofloc can be called as profitable Biofloc fish farming. The main concept of Biofloc is low investment, less land and high profit.We should establish this farming in a such area where there is easy availability of water, electricity. Market and road.
Principle of Biofloc Fish Culture: Biofloc Fish Culture is mainly based on the principle of waster nutrients recycling in particular nitrogen, into microbial biomass that can be used I situ by the cultured animals or be harvested and processed into feed ingredients. Biofloc fish culture offers benefits in improving aquaculture production that could contribute to the achievements of sustainable development goals.
The necessary materials to start Biofloc fish farming are tanks, outlet, Oxygen supplier and Probiotics or Bacteria.
The tanks are the first thing to start Biofloc fish farming. One can start fish farming by using only 1 tank also. If the production becomes good, then we can add more tanks and start commercial fish farming. The base or floor of Biofloc tank is made up of bricks, sand, cement and sometimes mud with the proper provision of outlet. The outer surrounding frame of tanks can be made of up cement or there is availability of Tarpaulin.If we use Tarpaulin tank, Then, we need outer metal frame to support the Tarpaulin.The final inner lining should of tarpaulin. This helps in the collection and preservation of water inside the tank. The tarpaulin is specially made for Biofloc Fish Farming. It is strong and can work for (5-7) years. We can get Tarpaulin of different diameters like 4m, 6m, 8m. This diameter determines the amount of water that can be accumulated inside the tanks. We can also made tank with cement. But, There can be some problem at initial days. When we made tanks with cement, there is use of Calcium hydroxide to make cement properly attached with bricks. The Ca(OH)2 increase the pH of the water in tank. This can cause stress to fishes
Outlets are made from the base of tanks with the help of pipes. It helps in managing the water level inside the tank. If there is too much water or during the fish harvesting, we can let the water out of our tanks.
Oxygen supplier is the most important requirement for Biofloc fish farming. In Biofloc, high number of fishes is cultured in small area of tanks. So that, there is deficit of oxygen for fishes. Only dissolved oxygen cannot fulfill the needs of all the fishes inside the tank. If the fishes don’t get enough oxygen, they die within (4-5) hrs. Therefore, there must be regular supply of oxygen inside tanks. Aerator machines takes oxygen from atmosphere and sends with good pressure in pipes. The pipes are laid all round the fish cultured area. Small pipes are connected with main oxygen pipe. This small pipe is then dissolved inside the water of tank. This supply oxygen inside tanks. The oxygen machine is operated with electric power. That’s why, Electricity is also very important in Biofloc farming. We should also create backup power with the help of Inverter or Battery.
Bacteria used in the Biofloc fish farming different from traditional fish farming. Millions of bacteria to be put inside every tanks. The spores of these bacteria are commercially available. These bacteria are heterotrophic in nature. They feed on waste product of fishes including feed waste. The consumption of fish waste maintains the level of toxic Ammonia inside the tank. If the level of ammonia goes high then it causes death of fish. Moreover, Bacteria also convert some waste into protein cell. This protein cell works as feed for fish. This reduces our investment cost. The number of bacteria are maintained by adding carbohydrates and mollases inside tanks. This acts as a food for bacteria and they keep their work of cleaning water continue at rapid pace. A good amount of profit from Biofloc fish farming can be expected if done with proper knowledge. Fish farming needs patience. If everything goes smoothly, Then, profit can be expected within a period of one year .Under the above background information , Biofloc Fish Culture Project was undertaken with the following objectives –
Considering all the merits and importance of the Biofloc fish culture technology, Department of Zoology, Silapathar Science College decided to start Biofloc Fish Culture Project with the following administrative committee.
Department of Zoology, Silapathar Science College
Biofloc Fish Production Centre under the Chairmanship of Dr. Ranjit Saikia, Principal, Silapathar Science College and Principal Investigation of Dr. Pabitra Sarmah Department of Zoology, Silapathar Science College was established on 4th February 2022. It was a self-financing project and the estimated amount was 4,00,000.00/= only (Four Lakh only). It was finally inaugurated on 27th July 2022 by Mr. Bhuban Pegu, Honorable MLA, 114 no. Jonai (ST) LAC.
First batch of Vietnam Koi fish (Approximately 8000 no) was introduced on 15th March 2022 into three tanks. Second batch of Heteropneustes fossilis (approximately 4000) was introduced on 7th April 2022 into a tank and Vietnam Koi Fish (approximately 3000) on the same day into an another tank. Third batch of Heteropneustes fossilis (approximately 4000) was introduced into a local pond on 8th May 2022 as the tank water was not in good condition. The growth rate of the first batch of Vietnam Koi fish was good and mortality rate was very less. The water quality (PH, TDS, Temperature, NH3) was continuously monitored and kept under normal condition by treating water as per guideline. Feed was also provided as per guideline.
Out come of the Project: The project is a long term and season wish continuous project. After six months of the project, the cultured fishes which is 3-4 months old reached the size of 5-6 inches and gained the weight 90-120 gm. 12 no. of 6th semester students were trained up about the technique of Biofloc Fish culture. There is also a provision of providing training and facilities to local fish growers/ cultivators from the Department of Zoology, Silapathar Scince College. On the successful and profitable outcome of the project, Principal Investigator already submitted a proposal with an endorsement of Principal, Silapathar Science College to Assam Science Technology and Environment Council, Guwahati (ASTEC) on Hypophysation of Calrias batrachus entrepreneurship development and employment generation among the rural people.
Photos showing inagutation of Biofloc Fish Culture Unit By Mr. Bhuban Pegu, Honorable MLA, 114 no. Jonai (ST) LAC on 27th July 2022